Deep origins to the behavior of our volcanoes
KÄ«lauea volcano, on the Big Island of Hawaii, typically has effusive eruptions, where magma flows to create ropy pÄhoehoe lava. But KÄ«lauea sometimes erupts more violently, showering scoria and blocks over much of the surface of the island. To explain the variability in KÄ«laueaâ€™s eruption styles, a research team analyzed 25 eruptions that have taken place over the past 600 years.
Their research shows that the ultimate fate of a magma at KÄ«lauea â€” that is if the eruption will be effusive or explosive â€” is strongly influenced by the variability in composition of the deep magma. In short, more gas-rich magmas produces more explosive eruptions.
â€œGas-rich magmas are â€˜predisposedâ€™ to rise quickly through the Earthâ€™s mantle and crust and erupt powerfully,â€ Houghton explained.Read more